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Elder Community Care significantly reduces Depression in older adults
At follow-up, the percentage of older adults in each of the four categories above Minimal Depression (the lowest category) was less than at the baseline measure. Patients reporting “Severe Depression” declined 60%, while those reporting ‘Little’ to ‘No’ Depression” increased 108%.
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) 9-item screen for depression
The PHQ-9 is a brief measure consisting of nine questions based on the 9 DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episode. It is the instrument most frequently used in primary care settings to screen for major depression. An older adult indicates whether each symptom has bothered him or her during the previous two weeks. Each item ranges in severity from 0-3, with the higher score indicating more severe depression. Measures are taken at the beginning of service (baseline) and at follow up at time of discharge. The data grouped the older adults into one of five baseline categories ranging from minimal depression (rating of 0-4) to severe depression (rating of 20-27). Improvement is reflected in lowering of the older adults’ self-reported score of depression.
Elder Community Care improved Cognitive Functioning in older adults
The percentage of older adults measuring in the normal range at the beginning of service was 22%. At follow-up, the percentage of older adults in this category increased to 33%, a 50% improvement.
Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) 30-point screening measuring cognitive functioning
The Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) Examination for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia is a 30-point screening questionnaire collected by program staff at intake and counseling discharge. It consists of 11 items and measures aspects of cognition that include orientation, short-term memory, calculations, naming of animals, clock drawing, and recognition of geometric figures. Scores range from 0 to 30, with scores of 27-30 considered normal in a person with a high school education. Scores between 21 and 26 suggest Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (MNCD), and scores between 0 and 20 indicate dementia.
Elder Community Care significantly reduces Anxiety in older adults
The percentage of older adults measuring in the minimal anxiety range at the beginning of service was 35%. At follow-up, the percentage of older adults in this category increased to 48%, a 37% improvement.
Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) 21-item inventory which measures severe anxiety in adults and adolescents
Collected by evaluation staff at intake and six months, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is a 21-item self-report inventory that measures the severity of anxiety in adults and adolescents (Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988). The items reflect how much an individual has been bothered by each of the 21 symptoms during the past seven days. Responses range from “not at all” to “severely—it bothered me a lot”. Individual scores are grouped into one of four categories: Minimal, Mild, Moderate, and Severe.
Elder Community Care Significantly improves Overall Functioning in older adults
• Symptoms: The percentage of older adults measuring in the lowest category ‘not bothering me at all’ range at the beginning of service was 28% and increased to 45%, a 61% improvement.
• Overall Functioning: The percentage of older adults measuring in the healthiest category at the beginning of service was 47%, and increased to 66%, a 40% improvement.
• Social Connectedness: The percentage of older adults measuring in the highest category of social connectedness at the beginning of service was 66%, and increased to 78%, an 15% improvement.
National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) Measures
The NOMS, established by SAMHSA, are comprised of ten domains that embody meaningful, real life outcomes for people who are striving to attain and sustain recovery, build resilience, and work, learn, live and participate fully in their communities. Questions from the National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) were used to measure level of functioning, symptoms improvement, and Social Connectedness.